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The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions. as a wild or escaped variety of low-intoxicant Cannabis, and C. Professors William Emboden, Loran Anderson, and Harvard botanist Richard E. sativa is tall and laxly branched with relatively narrow leaflets, C.At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. Schultes and coworkers also conducted taxonomic studies of Cannabis in the 1970s, and concluded that stable morphological differences exist that support recognition of at least three species, C. indica is shorter, conical in shape, and has relatively wide leaflets, and C.This means that on its way from the midrib of the leaflet to the point of the serration, the vein serving the tip of the serration passes close by the intervening notch. Several studies of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and other types of genetic markers have been conducted on drug and fiber strains of Cannabis, primarily for plant breeding and forensic purposes. Mahlberg at Indiana University, conducted a systematic investigation of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation among 157 Cannabis accessions of known geographic origin, including fiber, drug, and feral populations. The authors assigned fiber/seed landraces and feral populations from Europe, central Asia, and Asia Minor to C. Narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug accessions, southern and eastern Asian hemp accessions, and feral Himalayan populations were assigned to C. In 2005, Hillig published a genetic analysis of the same set of accessions (this paper was the first in the series, but was delayed in publication), and proposed a three-species classification, recognizing C. Hillig concluded that the patterns of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation support recognition of C. In September 2005, New Scientist reported that researchers at the Canberra Institute of Technology had identified a new type of Cannabis based on analysis of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA.
Cannabis plants produce a unique family of terpeno-phenolic compounds called cannabinoids, some of which produce the "high" which may be experienced from consuming marijuana. Primary psychoactive effects include a state of relaxation, and to a lesser degree, euphoria from its main psychoactive compound, tetrahydrocannabinol.
In 1545, cannabis spread to the western hemisphere where Spaniards imported it to Chile for its use as fiber. Cannabis is used to reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, to improve appetite in people with HIV/AIDS, and to treat chronic pain and muscle spasms.
In North America, cannabis, in the form of hemp, was grown for use in rope, clothing and paper. In 1940, Russian botanists Serebriakova and Sizov proposed a complex classification in which they also recognized C. The term hemp is used to name the durable soft fiber from the Cannabis plant stem (stalk).
There are 483 identifiable chemical constituents known to exist in the cannabis plant, Non-drug plants produce relatively low levels of THC and high levels of CBD, while drug plants produce high levels of THC and low levels of CBD. Secondary psychoactive effects, such as a facility for philosophical thinking, introspection and metacognition have been reported among cases of anxiety and paranoia.
When plants of these two chemotypes cross-pollinate, the plants in the first filial (F Whether the drug and non-drug, cultivated and wild types of Cannabis constitute a single, highly variable species, or the genus is polytypic with more than one species, has been a subject of debate for well over two centuries. Finally, the tertiary psychoactive effects of the drug cannabis, can include an increase in heart rate and hunger, believed to be caused by 11-OH-THC, a psychoactive metabolite of THC produced in the liver.