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A camp was set up and the flag raised at Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, on 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day, Australia Day, although the British Crown Colony of New South Wales was not formally promulgated until 7 February 1788.The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration and settlement of other regions.To the south of these and inland, lie more areas of grassland: the Ord Victoria Plain and the Western Australian Mulga shrublands.
Eastern Australia is marked by the Great Dividing Range, which runs parallel to the coast of Queensland, New South Wales and much of Victoria.
After World War II Australia encouraged immigration from mainland Europe.
Since the 1970s and following the abolition of the White Australia policy, immigration from Asia and elsewhere was also promoted.
The Federal Capital Territory (later renamed the Australian Capital Territory) was formed in 1911 as the location for the future federal capital of Canberra.
Melbourne was the temporary seat of government from 1901 to 1927 while Canberra was being constructed.